For the control of flies on cattle:
Face fly (Musca autumnalis)
Head fly (Hydrotea irritans)
Horn fly (Haematobia irritans syn Lyperosia irritans)
Stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans)
Cattle biting fly (Haematobia stimulans syn Haematobosca stimulans).
While the five fly species listed above constitute the majority found on cattle in Western Europe, there are many other species both within and outside Europe against which tags may provide some protection. These include:
Warble (gad) fly (Hypoderma sp)
Horse fly (Tabanus bovinus)
Clegs (Haematopota pluvialis)
Screw-worm (Callitroga sp)
Blow fly (Lucilia sp)
Other species reported as forming a minor component of the fly population on cattle monitored during trials of tags include:
Sweat fly (Morellia simplex)
Black fly (Simulium reptans)
Lesser house fly (Fannia coniculars)
Flectron ear tags provide protection throughout the fly season. For maximum benefit they should therefore be applied at the beginning of the season before fly populations build up. For complete control the entire herd should be tagged.
One tag per animal is usually sufficient to achieve acceptable levels of fly control. However, where head and face fly attack is very severe, two tags may be necessary, one on each ear.